Kernel-Based Coconut Palm Products

Kernel-Based Coconut Palm Products

The coconut kernel of the coconut planting is usually from the innermost part of the coconut which is usually really high in nutritious value and found to be rich in fibre content, and various sources of vitamins as well as minerals. Some studies have even concluded that there are dietary fibres in the coconut palm plant that can even resist heart attacks, sudden strokes, and digestive disorders along with the potential to regulate bowel activities. Along with that, the fibres present in the coconut planting can also help to increase the metabolic rate by effectively restoring the functions of the body’s thyroid gland. Coconut flour is said to be the actual residue that is obtained after the proper extraction of milk from the coconut kernel. It is said to be dried, defatted, and even finely ground to be made into a powder form that will somehow resemble that of wheat flour. Coconut flour is also said to be low in indigestible carbohydrates and can be great as a fibre source. 

The quality of all the coconut kernels from the coconut planting usually tends to vary with the variety of the coconut palm plant. Some varieties of coconut plantings usually have more kernel content than others. The property of the oil that follows the source from which it is said to be extracted is what demands this. All the coconut kernels tend to contain anti-oxidants that are helpful to flush down all of the unwanted toxins from the body. This will then in turn be helpful in our body’s overall improvement in metabolism. Coconut kernels can also not only be great for weight reduction but also for lowering the cholesterol level in the body. Also, with the case of dried coconut kernels, it tends to contain good amounts of LDH which is helpful to help in the reduction of cholesterol in the body.                   

Coconut oil is by far the most edible oil that can be extracted from a fully dried-up kernel which is also called the copra. Coconut oil can have a high saturated fat content. So, this can prevent the oil from spoiling as it is slow to oxidize and can resist rancidification for just up to six months at ideal room temperature. It is supposedly an oil of natural origin and is highly edible in its rawest form and it is saturated and stable when compared to other similar types of oils. It also has a pleasing flavour, something which is of a light colour, and a pleasant aroma. It is also a biodegradable oil. Usually, coconut oil that is extracted from a coconut farm tends to show high resistance towards oxidation and rancidity, while it can possess a sharp melting behaviour. It is also supposed to be a super skin-friendly oil. It is also an effective heat transfer agent in terms of frying and can usually make for great cooking oil that tends to provide a better shelf life for the fried product. It also contributes to the overall palatability of the dish as well. Coconut plantings usually give out the kind of coconut oil that is supremely rich in Omega 6 fatty acids as well. Copra usually contains about 65-70% oil. Besides this, it can also be used as a common ingredient for cooking and also in the soap-making industry. 


The process to attain the oils is to dry the kernel into copra. Be sure to keep the moisture content not exceeding 6% and allow the place to be cleaned well before the process. Usually, it is better to practice sun drying, which is a method followed in several village areas. Drying machinery is also nowadays being used for the quick drying of coconut kernels. The dried copra is generally cut into very small pieces which are called copra chips either by using a copra cutter or even manually. These chips are then fed into long steam-jacketed kettles and they are cooked mildly at a temperature of 700C for about 30 minutes. Then the cooked material can be fed into an expeller which is continuously pressed twice. After all this process is done the oil is then collected in a tank. This collected oil from the coconut palm plant is then filtered by using a filter press and it can be fed into mild steel storage tanks. If the oil is made to be packed in bulk, then it is packed in nice and airtight tin containers.              

b) Virgin Coconut Oil                                              

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an abundant oil that is so rich in vitamins, minerals as well as anti-oxidants, thus making it by far the 'mother of all oils'. VCO was also been extensively used at VSRC for patients who face dry and often microbially colonized psoriasis problems, severe acne, and sometimes atopic or contact dermatitis. This is by far the best skin care solution for babies as well. Free from all forms of chemical formulations and can assure the person using it for good protection of the baby’s skin. A VCO from a coconut plantation or a coconut garden can also greatly help to improve your overall blood glucose levels as well as the lipid profile of those suffering from type 2 diabetes, due to its instantaneous readiness to provide energy to all your body cells.

Production processes of the oil from the coconut palm plant                           

Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) is extracted from fresh coconut milk obtained from matured coconut planting 12 months old. VCO can be consumed in its natural state without the need for further processing. For making 1 lite of virgin coconut oil, 7 kg (17 nuts) of dehusked coconut is needed.                          

a) Dehusking: This is a very manual or mechanized process of husk removal
b) Deshelling: In this process, the coconut is properly removed without it fully breaking from the kernel.
c) Paring: This is the brown colour that comes out of the kernel which is removed by using the paring machine.
d) Pared coconut is then dipped in hot water for effective blanching.
e) Draining: It is with the help of a vibratory that the screener releases excess water which is then removed from the blanched kernels.
f) Disintegration: The pared coconuts are then fed into a disintegrator with the pared nuts and are then cut into small pieces and made ready for extraction. 
g) Milk extraction: Milk extractors are usually normally screwed with a press-in or just used with a hydraulic press extractor. Then the disintegrated coconuts are put in the milk extractors and the coconut milk is then separated. The coconut milk is then filtered and can be taken out for centrifugation. The residue is then used for the overall preparation of the desiccated coconut. 
h) Centrifugation: Coconut milk is by far the most natural oil when it comes to water emulsion. After centrifugation, the oil is then skimmed and can be made into skim milk when it is separated. Coconut oil is also separated from this freshly made coconut milk.
i) Filtration: In this process, the oil is passed through the filter and can be packed in large consumer packs. The process of vacuum dehydration of all the oils will help to remove the excess moisture that can be present in the oils. 
j) Packing: The product is securely packed in appropriate bottles and can be stored in packets or containers.                                                        

CDB Scheme for Promotion of Coconut Farming Industries

Coconut Development Board which operates under the Technology Mission on Coconut-related matters extends financial assistance for up to a limit of 25% on all eligible project costs that can be limited to Rs. 50 lakhs per project. Under this elaborate scheme, CDB has ensured that it can help support 44 virgin coconut oil manufacturing units that are a part of the coconut cultivation and coconut harvesting process with a grand processing capacity of about 161.85 million nuts. 

c) Desiccated Coconut

The coconut meat is eventually dried and can be dehydrated to form the desiccated coconut which is also widely used these days for confectionaries. It is also well used as the next best alternative for most grated coconut. It can be obtained as a byproduct in the overall VCO production. Different grades of desiccated coconut are also easily available all across India. Desiccated Coconut which is a very widely used powder can easily be obtained by effectively drying it in the ground or also the shredded coconut kernel after having it removed from the brown Testa. The average processing of 100 coconuts gives around 10 kg of coconut powder.                                                                 

d) Coconut Milk and Flavoured Coconut Milk

Coconut milk is obtained from the processing of all the coconut planting’s kernel. By processing all that coconut milk and coconut cream, it can eventually be used for making flavoured foodstuffs. The technology of coconut milk as well as cream production is so developed that it has surely come a long way.

The production process of coconut milk and coconut cream:

Break open dehusked nuts into halves. The kernel is then separated from the shell. Washed kernels were then allowed to fully blanch in the hot water at about 800C for 10 minutes. Using a hammer mill kernel is ground into small gratings. The gratings are subjected to pressing using, a continuous screw will be pressed to extract the milk. The coconut milk thus obtained is filtered by passing through a vibratory screen. Food additives such as emulsifiers and stabilizers, are to be added to the milk to obtain a stable consistency and texture. For this purpose, permitted emulsifiers and stabilizers are mixed with hot water separately and mixed thoroughly. This is added to the coconut milk and then subjected to emulsification using a mechanical impeller emulsifier. The emulsified milk assumes a creamy consistency. The coconut cream is then pasteurized at 95oC for 10 minutes in a plate heat exchanger. The pasteurized coconut cream is hot filled in cans using a mechanical volumetric filling machine followed by steam exhausting. The cans are seamed using an automatic can seamer. The seamed cans are then properly sterilized in a rotary retort at about 15 psi for exactly 20 minutes. The cans are then cooled in fast-flowing water. The residue that is left can also be used for making coconut burfi. Vinegar, as well as Nata de Coco, are also made by using extracted coconut water as a by-product of this coconut farming industry. Shell charcoal and the shell powder which is derived from this process can also be manufactured from coconut shells. The utilization of all these by-products would greatly help to improve the economic feasibility of the entire process. A raw material of about 10,000 ripe green coconuts can effectively yield so much coconut cream out of about 2,500 kg as well as the coconut cream residue found in 500 kg of coconut.                           

Coconut-flavored milk is generally a new venture that can be put forward by the Coconut Development Board. Coconut milk which is extracted from the kernel is also used as an oil-water emulsion. Coconut milk is usually devoid of lactose and thus is relatively low in carbohydrates. It is also an extremely rich source of copper as well as iron. All the raw materials required for the overall production of 4000 litres are said to be calculated at around 2500kg of coconut. The cost of all these raw materials is assumed to be about Rs.20/kg.          

e) Coconut skimmed milk   

Skimmed milk is a really good source of quality protein which is suitable for the preparation of many useful food products available in the market or for our homes. It also acts as a great supplemental protein source, especially in most regions that are specifically deficient in animal proteins. Freshly prepared coconut milk that comes from the pared kernel derived out of coconut farming is filtered and then through into a fresh 120-mesh vibrating screen and then the pH of the filtered milk is made to be raised from 6.3 to 7.0 with the careful addition of sodium hydroxide. The milk is then effectively pasteurized at about 60 degrees Celsius for one hour and eventually centrifuged in a cream separator to get the yield or to say the protein-rich skimmed milk.                          

f) Spray-dried coconut milk            

This is a very innovative and fancy sort of product that is a derivative of coconut farming and the kernels that come from it. It is usually produced by effectively spray drying the coconut milk. It can also be done by mixing it with water and used instead of coconut milk.    

g) Coconut Chips     

Coconut chip is usually done in proper preparation standards that are set by the CPCRI, Kasaragod. It is by default a ready-to-eat form of chips that is prepared by using only the kernels which are derived from coconut farming.